Field Trip - Workshop on Enhancing Forest Governance for Asia and the Pacific in the Context of Timber Legality Verification

Updated:2015/7/22 9:29:05


A Brief Introduction to the Field Sites

Pu'er City

Pu'er City is situated in the Southwest region of Yunnan Province and administers one district and nine counties over a jurisdiction area of 45,385 km2. It is the largest prefecture in Yunnan in terms of area. Pu'er City is 470 km south of Kunming. Pu'er Prefecture borders the Laos and Vietnam in the Southeast and adjoins Myanmar in the Southwest, sharing an international border of 625 km with these countries. The Lancang (Mekong) River, Red River and Nankang River flow to the neighboring countries. A significant segment of the famous Southern Silk Road traverses Pu'er City. The total population of Pu'er Municipality is 2.37 million, of which 1.44 million are ethnic minorities, accounting for 61% of the total. There are 36 ethnic minorities in the prefecture and 14 of whom are indigenous inhabitants, which mainly include the Hani, Yi, Dai, Lahu, Wa, Bulang and Yao peoples. It is an important production area of the renowned Pu'er Tea and one of the largest tea production areas in China.

Distributed within the territory of Pu'er Municipality are vast undulating mountains that occupy 98.3% of its landscape. Due to its proximity to the Tropics of Cancer and an integrative impact of the physiognomy and varying elevation gradient from 376 to 3,306 meters, distinctive vertical climate zones are widespread in the region. Being located at the same latitude with that of Cuba in Central America and Taiwan Province of China and as a result of its location on the transient area between the northern and southern bio-geographic regions, its landscape has long been reputed as "a magic natural museum" that composed of rich species diversity, lush primary forest vegetation, rare animals and plants, and a diverse and uplifted landscape.

To protect natural forest resources in the region, the Natural Forest Resources Protection Programme is implemented in year 2000 to conserve and manage a total forest area of 8500 km2, including 288 km2 of reforestation. The project has successfully increased forest volume by 26 million cubic meters in a period of 10 years.

Since year 2002, Pu’er City has reforested a total area of 1155 km2, including the conversion of 279 km2 of agricultural land and afforestation of 720 km2 of bare land. More than 78,000 households have participated in the programme. As a result of this programme, the region has increased forest cover by 2%, and has reduced soil erosion and improved ecological conditions significantly.


Field Visit Sites

Fine Variety Ecological Tea Garden

The Fine Variety Ecological Tea Garden is run by Yunnan Pu'er Tea Research Institute, the only tea research institute established within the academic system of Yunnan. The institute has implemented more than 20 research projects funded by the provincial government, the provincial departments of sciences and technology, agriculture and education. Some outstanding achievements have been made in the germplasm of tea trees in Yunnan, the intrinsic relationship between Pu'er tea processing techniques and its quality, the functional elements in Pu'er Tea, and processing of large-leaf high quality tea varieties in Yunnan as well as the integrative utilization of tea products. The areas of research include the genetic diversity of Pu'er tea germplasm; the key techniques for managing ecological Pu'er tea plantations, key techniques for post fermentation of Pu'er tea, fine processing and integrative use of Pu'er tea, improving the quality of Pu'er tea by using beneficial microorganisms; appreciation of Pu'er tea quality; safety assessment and evaluation of the quality of Pu'er tea; and the sustainable development of the Pu'er tea culture. All these efforts have contributed enormously to the development of tea industry in Yunnan Province.

Wanzhangshan Forest Farm

Wanzhangshan Forest Farm is a new type of state-owned forest farm that was created through reforming a previous forest logging enterprise. The forest farm covers 88 km2, of which 42.7 km2 is commercial forest and 45.3 km2 is amenity/ecological forests that are distributed in the first level tributary of the Lancang (Mekong) River. Currently, the forest farm has 60 permanent staffs. In the past decade, the forest farm has implemented the Low-yield Forest Improvement Programme and afforestation on barren land. In total, about 40 km2 of plantation forest has been established and eight million trees have been planted. The indigenous species, Pinus kesiya (Simao pine), is the main tree species used in the afforestation project.

The survival rate has maintained at above 96% in the planting year and above 86% in following years. Through years of efforts, the forest stands in Wanzhangshan Forest Farm has been greatly improved. Sustained forest resources were enhanced significantly and net growth of forest resources is also increasing steadily. The establishment of effective management models for state-owned forest farms has contributed substantially to the management goals of "seeing green mountains and steady stock growth", and to the erosion control and ecological protection in the watersheds of the Mekong River.

Sensheng Forestry Chemical Industry

Pu 'er City in Yunnan province is an important forest industry production base, the initial formation of the forestry board, forest, forest paper industrial system, the forest industry in the city's economy proportion nearly 30%. The total output value of forestry from RMB 4.4billion yuan in 2008 to RMB12.3 billion yuan in 2012, in which, income from rosin is more than 1billon yuan. The forest industry has maintained rapid and healthy development momentum. The city's major forest products such as plywood, rosin, pulp yield increase by more than 15% compared to the same period, and the economic efficiency of enterprises improved significantly, cash income of the farmers in the drought conditions are still grew by more than 10%, the “hope in the mountains, rich by forest" of majority of farmer’s aspirations put into reality.

Pu’er Tea Research Institute

Yunnan Pu'er Tea Research Institute is the only tea research institute established within the university system in Yunnan. The institute has implemented more than 20 research projects funded by the provincial government, the provincial departments of sciences and technology, agriculture and education. Some outstanding achievements have been made in the germplasm of tea trees in Yunnan, the intrinsic relationship between Pu'er tea processing techniques and its quality, the functional elements in Pu'er Tea, and processing of large-leaf high quality tea varieties in Yunnan as well as the integrative utilization of tea products. The areas of research include the genetic diversity of Pu'er tea germplasm; the key techniques for managing ecological Pu'er tea plantations, key techniques for post fermentation of Pu'er tea, fine processing and integrative use of Pu'er tea, improving the quality of Pu'er tea by using beneficial microorganisms; appreciation of Pu'er tea quality; safety assessment and evaluation of the quality of Pu'er tea; the sustainable development of the Pu'er tea culture, and so on. All these efforts have contributed constructively to the leap-fogging development of the tea industry in Yunnan Province.  

Demonstration Site of Artificial Plantation

Approximately 1,680 acres of demonstration forest is afforested with mixed fast-growing trees which commonly used for timber purpose, such as pine (Pinus kesiya) and birch (Betula alnoides). It is a project to explore and demonstrate modern forestry practices and also technologies for more effective and stable timber production models. With this successful demonstration, the forestation model and technique has been popular accepted and widely replicated in community and individual farmer households nearby.      

Puer Kanghe Wood-Plastic Enterprise

Puer Kanghe Wood-Plastic Enterprise, as a private enterprise, is specialized in the development, production, selling, designing and installation of new wood-plastic composite products. The business activities cover a wide spectrum of high-quality products, ranging from building materials to furnishing material including outdoor decking, flooring, fencing and other structural profiles. The products are widely used in the decoration and construction of coastal road, port, park road and chair, swimming pool, square, balcony, cabin, wooden pavilion, gallery frame, flower box, garbage bin, etc.

The enterprise is devoted to providing green services and products which are made from xylem fibre and plant fibre together with thermoplastic resin and special adhesive through high-tech equipments and special manufacturing techniques. The Kanghe products are characterized by:

a. waterproofing                  b. recyclable

c. insect-resistant                  d. a wide range of colors

e. high plasticity                   f. fire-prevention

g. easy to clean and maintain         h. long life span

i. simple installation, convenient construction

j. environmental-friendly and non-tolerance methanol






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